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Meet the Samoyed

 

A History of the Samoyed

The Samoyede people, a mongoloid, semi-nomadic tribe, living along the shores of the Arctic Ocean and into an immense stretch of tundra from the White Sea to the Yenisei River are a remnant of one of the earliest tribes of Central Asia.  There is evidence that they migrated to the Arctic with their dogs early in the first millennium.  They have been known to explorers for many centuries as mild, kindly people, manifesting extraordinary love for their beautiful dogs, which they treat as members of the family.  Sharing their table and bed has given the Samoyed dog an unusual background of human association.  The Samoyed People's dogs were known as Bjelkies (white dog that breeds white).  These people developed a love and understanding of humankind and an unfailing sense of trust and loyalty in their dogs which remains a part of their character today.  They lived by hunting and fishing.  Existence depended upon their dogs who herded reindeer, fought off wolves and bear, guarded their belongings, shared their beds, and kept their children warm.  The dogs were excellent fishermen and were used at times for towing boats and sledges when it was impossible to use the reindeer, generally the draught animal.  Nansen (1893-4) was one of the first to use the Samoyed as a draught animal.  He spent some time with the Samoyed tribe during his expedition to the North Pole. 

 

The qualities of intelligence and endurance led to the use of Samoyed dogs for transport by most of the important European expeditions to the Arctic and Antarctic.  Nansen's story of his Farthest North with Samoyeds on the first ship expedition is an epic of dog valor that rings through the whole history of man's adventures at the ends of the Earth.  Most of the Samoyed lines in England and the US today are related to veteran sledge dogs of these early Arctic and Antarctic expeditions.  

Kilburn-Scott founded the Samoyede Club in 1909, and Samoyede became the official name of the Bjelkier outside of Siberia.  Kilburn-Scott conferred with explorers of Siberia and agreed on the pronunciation and a spelling of the people who were responsible for the dog.  The dog was then named for the people.  The first official standard for the breed was adopted in England in 1909.  Although Sams arrived in America before this date, it was not until 1906 that the first Sam was registered with the American Kennel Club and appeared at shows.  Very few of our present-day Samoyeds were bred from those early AKC-registered dogs, but from dogs imported prior to and immediately following World War I from large, well established kennels in England.  The original Samoyed Club of America was organized and chartered February 14, 1923 in the East.  The first official American standard was adopted may 15, 1923.

Historical background is retained.  As dogs are endowed with a fifth dimension where they reach back for generations and know the purpose for which they were intended, so the puppy you purchase today will know their part in life's scheme to protect, guide and herd, to love and be loved.  Whether the subject is a reindeer or your wee child, be assured it will be guarded from danger with a love that knows no bounds.

Beware of Fraud

There is only one Samoyed breed, only one kind with a true, working-dog build.  The tiny specimens of dog sometimes sold to the unwary as toy or miniature Samoyeds (American Eskimo) or Spitz dogs, and are not to be compared with the noble animal for whom they may be mistaken.  The Samoyed is not closely related to any other breed.  He stands alone.  He always breeds true, always shows his characteristic traits of build and of brains.  Samoyeds are relatively untouched by human breeding practices and are the easiest to duplicate.

Characteristics

The Samoyed is alert, expressive, intelligent, full of action, and displays affection for all mankind.  Joy is shown by the sparkle in his eyes and the mouth curving upward at the corners forming the well know "Sammy Smile".

Physically, the Samoyed is the most efficient design of the Northern breeds.  It has a much more pronounced double layer coat than its cousins.  The coat can be the pure white, white and biscuit, cream, or all biscuit.  The long silver-white guard hair is tough and is soil and water repellent.  Snow cannot accumulate on this coat and the dog can easily shake it off.  The guard hair's length remains constant and should stand straight out. The inner coat is woolly and during the winter is so thick, that you can't push your finger to the flesh.  In spring, the Samoyed dog sheds so much of this warm woolly hair that the Samoyede people (and others today) spun and wove it like sheep wool.  It was then, and still is, used to make clothing.  The coat has no doggie odor.  The only scent the Samoyed has is the musk exuded between the toe pads for scent marking.  The deep brown eyes are set behind almond-shaped, black eyelids to reduce glare from the snow.  The feet are designed so the toes spread out (like a built-in snowshoe) and there is very dense, long hair between the toe pads to prevent ice from accumulating.  This hair also serves to provide traction on slippery surfaces.  The curved tail is used to cover the nose during extreme cold weather where it acts as a prefilter to warm and humidify the air that is inhaled.  The chest is a pronounced heart shape to support stronger musculature.  The skeleton is much heavier than would be expected for a dog its size to support the muscles that give it the strength to haul huge loads.  Yet it is not so massive that it's not nimble and agile.  It has the speed to run down any large member of the deer family, including the reindeer.

Their intelligence can be a challenge to the owner.  Man in the past depended upon the Samoyed and it was the latter who made the decisions, and worked independently of man for the survival of man.  The dog was "on his own" to find the reindeer, gain their confidence, protect them from wolves, and herd them back to the human environment.  They taught their young this independence and responsibility, instilling this great instinct of reasoning so strongly that it rules the minds of our breed today.  Yet we expect this highly intelligent animal give up his heritage, his independence, and bow to our every wish or we call him stubborn, unmanageable, or stupid.  Why do some owners have so many problems with their dogs while others have perfect harmony?  The answer is in the handling; not by forceful demands, but an understanding of love and respect between them.  Don't expect him to always think as you do. He has a mind of his own; respect it and he will comply through love and patience. He can be the easiest of all breeds to train or the hardest to control, depending on how you handle the situation.  Training must be given, and a command once given must be obeyed.  If he does not obey he must be corrected.  He will obey and keep his dignity if you have had close companionship and understanding of each other.  Severe punishment will work against the trainer.  Keep in mind your command may not be clearly understood.  Present your point as an enjoyable and intelligent command by expressing delight in sharing it, praise him highly when done, even though it may not have been just as you expected.

Being alert and full of action, the Samoyed should respond as a happy worker.  His great love of mankind is your control of his independence.  He is a jealous dog, he wants your attention, and he will please you to get it.

The home life of the past reflects character today.  He slept with his masters as part of the family.  Tie him or ignore him and you will have a problem dog to handle.  Love him, gain his respect, take him with you for rides, let him share your home and life and you will build the character his breed possesses.  Character cannot be built without close human relationship, either in kennel, or at the end of a chain, but as the center of your attention, loved, respected, and wanted.  Your reward will be respect, protection, performance, and love coupled with intelligence beyond belief.

The herding instinct is very strong, and he will take off after a rabbit despite your command to stay.  Accept him for what he is-he will need a fenced-in yard.  If you want a dog who will stay on your porch, who will not stray, this is not your breed.  If you are willing to give your time and love, you will receive the greatest treasure a dog lover could have-being owned by a Sammy.

Size

The standard states males at 21 to 23.5 in. at the shoulder; bitches 19 to 21 in.  There is no disqualification for size in this breed.  Size may vary from 17 to 25 in. though these extremes are typically sold as pets and seldom seen in the show ring.  The majority of winning Sammies today fall within the middle of their standard size, rather than at the bottom or the top.

Personality

By nature he is not a quarrelsome dog though he will stand his ground for what he feels are his rights.  As an all-purpose dog he will adapt easily to any circumstances or environment and when brought up with children, they will be his favorites as he excels as a playmate and guardian who will not desert his charges when they are in danger.  Each Sam is an individual, even from one litter.  One may be very attentive and obedient while another may be more headstrong and less demanding of affection as long as he knows the house is his castle when he wants it.

Personalities can and are changed with circumstances and environment.  The happy, outgoing puppy can end up dull, shy or aggressive through neglect or mistreatment during his first year.  Lack of harmony in the home will upset him - he cannot be happy if you are upset.  He should be taken for short drives as early as 8 to 10 weeks, meet strangers, and adjust to strange surroundings as well as other dogs when he is three months and older.  Care must be taken that he is always treated kindly.  He must not be deprived of human companionship which he needs.  Never tie him outdoors alone.  This will change his personality as he was born to be free.  A fenced-in yard is a must where he can get his exercise, feel the freedom of open area, yet be protected from outside dangers.  He will want to herd the neighbor's cat, rabbits, squirrels or explore the area - as much as 10 miles of it if allowed.

He has a keen sense of knowing when you are happy, sad, who really loves him, just tolerates him, or dislikes him, and he will return his love accordingly.  He thrives and his personality abounds with love and companionship in being part of the family, in the car as well as at home.  There is no way of fully describing his understanding, intelligence, his value as a pet and/or show dog except to live very closely with one and experience the great treasure he becomes in your home.

He is a vocal dog and with encouragement will voice his pleasures and his dislikes.  Some enjoy jokes and ham it up when laughed at while others resent it.  He will speak with his paw or nose.  Many an owner can tell how a cup of coffee was almost bounced from their hands when they ignored his demand to be let outdoors.  That nose will also be pressed softly under your arm for attention, pressure added when the first hints for recognition are ignored.  They are naturals to shake hands as they are quick to offer a paw in friendliness, even when a small puppy.

Wool

The Samoyed has a double coat.  The undercoat is wool which when carded and spun can be woven or knit into beautiful clothing.  It is strong and warm.  The coat is odorless, the outer coat is coarse, long and the tips have a silver glint.  Both coats should stand out from the body; a dropping coat is not typical of the breed.  Most Sammies today are white though having some cream or biscuit is valuable to the breed as they often have a more stand-off coat of coarser texture and their get (offspring) have the beautiful silvertips which are lacking in some of the dogs today due to breeding away from color too long.  Unusually black pigment generally is evident in the colored dogs. 

The wool is not sheared, Samoyeds shed!  At this time comb it out and save it.  Always brush your Sammy before you bathe him since if he is starting to shed he will be matted and it will be a miserable job to comb out for you and painful to him.  The bitches usually shed twice a year (after their seasons), dogs once, though they can have a slight shed midyear.  Once the Samoyed has a complete shed and the new coat starts to grow in, there is no hair problem as with shorthaired breeds.  However, when they do shed, there is a lot of hair around.  In some areas where humidity is high, there can be more shedding problems.  In summer, when the wooly undercoat is shed, the coarse outer coat acts as protection against the sun.  Puppies born in late fall often shed in winter instead of spring so there is no standard time of shedding although weather plays an important role.  Nature provides that the young be born in Spring and in their homeland they have a definite pattern.  Though odorless of doggy smell, the coat will pick up other offensive odors if allowed to contact it.  A soiled coat will have a musty odor when wet from the rain.

 

Feeding

The young Samoyed, in general, is not as hearty an eater as most breeds his size.  If the healthy condition of a puppy is maintained through the first year, it will take much less food to retain his condition throughout his life.   Nothing should be spared this first year as growth is rapid.  He will go from about one pound at birth to anywhere from 45 to 70 pounds as an adult, depending on sex, size, and bone structure.  The care received at this time will set a pattern in eating for the rest of his life.  Each dog is an individual and where one will maintain show condition on one cup of food, another will require three times as much.

Never allow an adult Sammy to become fat.  Cut his rations and increase his exercise.  He will live much longer and be a healthier and happier dog.  Feed a balanced diet - no table scraps except beef or or chicken, scraped from the bones.  Keep in mind meals were few and far between in his native land, he survived without eating for several days.  Limit his treats to healthy small doses.  Guard against overfeeding the bitch when pregnant and during nursing.  She will have a tendency to become overly fat because her appetite is keen.  Cut her rations when weaning or she will lose her shape and her health will suffer.  Feed a premium dog food and there will be no need to supplement.

When you purchase a puppy or dog from a reliable breeder you will receive a complete feeding plan as well as advice throughout his life, often whether you request it or not.  See that you have the foods on hand prior to picking him up.  Take a large container for water along, and ask that it be filled.  Change of water can upset a puppy but by slowly mixing this with yours, he will adjust without problems.  See that fresh water is available at all times.  Ice cubes are enjoyed as treats in the hot months by many dogs.

Health Problems

The normal temperature of a dog (taken with a rectal thermometer) lies between 101 and 102į F.  Given his necessary shots and yearly booster, the Samoyed is a hardy dog and not prone to illness.  Most illnesses and injuries are caused by incorrect diets and neglect.  Long coated dogs are subject to hot spots and other skin diseases when not groomed and kept clean, from force feeding rich foods to promote excessive coat, and by not providing a cool place to sleep during the hot months.  He will tolerate the heat if given a shady spot; he can adjust to any climate.

He can become infested with fleas, ticks or worms if not kept clean and if allowed to roam in affected areas.  A fenced in yard, mowed lawn, and prompt removal of all feces will ensure his health against these problems.  Prevention is much easier than cure.  In case of illness or unusual behavior, contact a veterinarian at once.

Do not give him just any bones.  Purchase raw bones which are edible protein or other chew items which will give him the exercise he needs, clean his teeth, and pacify his desire to chew.

Should your Sammy shed constantly, have him checked by the veterinarian.  Unless he has been exposed to sudden temperature changes, this is not normal.  Anal gland problems may cause this as well as other health problems.  The reference material listed at the end of this article provides additional information and detail.

Grooming and Care

Too many new owners have been told that Samoyeds are easy to keep clean, they never get dirty, never shed, never have odor, and need never be bathed!  This is a gross misrepresentation of the breed.  Unless under constant supervision they are not easy to keep clean; they do shed - as much as a bushel in two combings.  Let them run through a barnyard, and they will smell as offensive as one.  A wet, soiled Sammy has the color of filthy, wet, wool, blanket and should be bathed.

A clean Samoyed is a picture of breathtaking beauty, a sparkling silver-tipped coat as fresh and pure as the new fallen snow adds to this charm and people will reach out to touch this striking animal and would welcome it in their home.

The coat can start to soil right after bathing because the wet coat picks up soil much more easily than when dry.  Keep him confined in a small clean area until dry or use a powerful dog or cattle dryer (human hair dryers just don't cut it).  The coat can be kept quite clean for several weeks by washing the feet after each outdoor romp and rubbing the body down every day with a wet towel, drying briskly with a white Turkish towel.

Brushing helps to remove soil and your dog will look presentable with daily grooming.  The time to bathe depends on your dog, his surroundings, training, and you.   Snowfalls can bathe him for you as he rolls in each new snowfall.  Frequent brushing will not keep the coat clean, but it will keep the lighter dust and dirt out for awhile.  However, sooner or later he will become dirty and a bath is necessary.

Bathing is a must prior to a dog show; there is no excuse for a dirty entry.  Your pet should be bathed at least twice a year for his health and comfort .  Bathe right after the wool has been combed out.  This will remove loose, dead hair and clean the skin which stimulates the growth of his new coat.  Use a good dog shampoo that conditions both skin and coat, not a cheap detergent which can and does dry and irritate the skin.  Use lukewarm water.

Trim toenails every week optimally; do not cut into the quick.  If unsure how, ask your vet or a groomer to do it or show you how.  At this time trim the hair beneath the pads, level with the pads.  This is very important as long hair may cause the dog to slip from poor footing.  It will also encourage him to dog 'down in pastern' as he will tend to walk on the heel pad rather than the toe pads as is normal.

Check teeth for discoloration which can be removed with a toothbrush and dog toothpaste.  Tarter should be removed by your veterinarian.  Hard dog biscuits and rawhide bones (in moderation) will help prevent and remove it.

Urine stains the coat and bathing will not remove it unless it is done at once.  The sun will burn the harsh outer coat and it will appear a soiled yellow or brown color, especially over the back.  Be sure your dog has ample shade at all times! Never place him where shade is not available.  Ensure your fenced-in area has trees, or that your dog run has a covered area.

Bad Habits

Every breed has bad habits and the Samoyed is no exception.  This is a working breed that enjoys action, herding, and attention.  They can easily become bored with nothing of interest at hand.  They will dig.  They are excellent excavators by nature digging deep into the snow for the protection against the bitter cold winds in their native land.

 

Samoyeds can get very excited over squirrels hovering above them, leaping from tree to tree and they will bark.  The remedy is to chase off the squirrels or call in the dogs until the teasers find other entertainment.  They are excellent watchdogs but will not keep barking continually while your guests are present.  They bark when company arrives; but after they see who it is and receive recognition that they were heard, they will return to their own pleasures.  It is not natural for them to keep barking unless they are tied, bored, teased, agitated, or ignored.  The very reason he is an ideal pet for their friends and desert him.  Call him in the house, give him attention, and get his mind off being deserted.  In a few minutes he will go out in the yard content to wait for their return.

 

This is a highly intelligent breed, they do think and have a keen sense of being loved or neglected.  They are not a dog content to lay around satisfied with what you care to hand out--they will demand!!  The more intelligent the dog, the more likely it is he will figure out ways to gain attention, good or bad.  It takes a highly intelligent human to cope with some of them.  No two are alike.  Environment makes a big difference.

Some Samoyeds have a propensity for foreign objects which last past puppyhood.  They must be tried and tested before you can leave them free in the house. Ensure the house is safe when you are away. Many Sams can be given the full run of the house from the time they are puppies while others will be a problem as long as they live. Early training usually conforms the puppy into a well mannered adult. Donít give the puppy a shoe to play with unless you wonít mind when he chews up your good ones. Never place poison where a child or animal can get to it. Never leave anything around that the puppy should not chew when you leave him alone. Bring out off limit things when you are home, teach him what is his and what must be left alone. An untrained puppy can form bad habits which he will continue throughout his life, spoiling him as a trusted pal when grown.

Chewing hair off the front legs, skirts, and tails is from sheer boredom.  A dog left alone for the day will often do this. A bitter spray is available in pet stores and advertised in dog magazines. The sooner you spray the area, the more apt you will be to break a future habit as this usually discourages it. Give him a raw bone to chew on, he needs something to pass the time.

Select a Reliable Breeder

Beware of that 'reasonable price', the pet store pups, or those not carefully linebred to quality stock. You will get just what you pay for. The service fee of a good stud is $1000.00 and up. The breeder must take the bitch to the stud, many vet expenses are involved. Both parents should be x-rayed clear of hip dysplasia, have clear eyes, be sound, and be a good representation of the breed. They should be complimentary to each other for the betterment of the breed, not bred because the service is cheap or the stud is close by, Beware of false advertising; the breeder should have proof of what he advertises. Donít be misled by AKC registration certificates or blue ribbons.  Ask to see Winners and Best of Winners ribbons. If the dog is a Best in Show winner that huge ribbon should be on display. Find out if the dog has its championship.  Do not be surprised if a price of $1000.00 and up is quoted for a nice, well bred puppy from proven winners and producers which is a fine show prospect or a pet. A good breeder will have a puppy packet for you as well as a signed contract.

A pick puppy is the first choice of the litter and if you want a show and producing prospect this is the one you should get. Much consideration must be taken to study the pedigree; especially the dogs in the first four generations. If they are all fine specimens, you have a very good chance of coming up with the real winner. A litter can produce one champion, all champions or none. This is why the pedigree is important. However, a puppy from top quality stock is a pretty sure bet that the pups will carry far more quality and produce it than mediocre parents. There is no guarantee that the pick pup will be better than an another when adult. The breeder, if experienced, can be very helpful knowing the faults to look for and recognizing quality. The care you give the pup can also make the difference. Listen to the breeder and heed their warnings on care of the young pup. Donít expect the puppy to be perfect. Every dog has a fault or lacks something. The top dogs are those who have the most quality and overall showmanship. Even the dog who has won top awards over all breeds in shows is not perfect.

Every purchaser is not interested in showing a dog. Sometimes a buyer wants such a dog as just a pet, the pride of owning a fine specimen of the breed. Donít purchase a pet-quality bitch with intentions of breeding her later; she was sold as a pet for a valid reason. She will produce inferior stock and harm the breed.  A good breeder will have a contract stipulating a pet be spayed/neutered.

Above all, be sure the puppy is guaranteed healthy at the time of sale, he has had dewclaws removed, is free from parasites, has had the necessary shots against distemper, parvo, etc. Have it checked by your veterinarian at once, and follow recommended vaccination/titer protocols, and general checkups. He should be at least eight weeks old when placed in his new home. He needs that contact with his littermates to help him learn to get along with other dogs when grown.

If possible, visit the kennel a few times and note if cleanliness prevails. The dam should be clean though she may be going out of coat and looking pretty straggly (normal after having a litter). Cleanliness is a habit and chances are you will have an easier Sammy to keep clean if he was trained thus.

The puppies should be happy and outgoing, not shy. Do not expect to pick up and handle the puppies unless the breeder suggests it and then learn how a puppy should be picked up and handled. They are squirmy and if you are not used to handling them, you could drop and injure one. Ask what food the puppy receives and get a supply when you get the puppy or beforehand so he will not have a change of food. Be sure the dam has been receiving the proper vitamins and minerals to ensure proper growth.

Bringing Your Puppy Home

Keep your home and schedule as consistent as possible the first week of your puppy's arrival. Your home and family are enough adjustments and company should be asked to wait. Allow him plenty of time to sleep. Donít allow the children to play with him unless he comes to them. He is a baby and may be too tired. He should not be fussed with after he eats. He should not be picked up by a child. He is not a toy! He is a living creature with feelings--a gift from God.  If your child plays rough with him, he will soon return the rough play. Train your child to learn gentleness and love. This will be returned tenfold. He wants to please and you express your wishes by the way your family handles him when he is young.

See that he is fed on time. Until he is ~4 months old, he should be fed 3 times a day and let out at least once during the day.  He will housetrain faster and be healthier with this care. Donít ask a child to take over this responsibility; this is your job, not theirs.  If he must be left in the house during the day, put him in a crate.  This will keep him safe, out of trouble, and help with housetraining.  Take him out to a designated spot in the yard frequently to help him learn where it is OK to potty.  Take him out first thing in the morning, after each meal, nap or play period and before bed at night.  Don't punish him for accidents in the house.  Take him to the proper spot if you catch him in the act.

Donít allow a child to lead him on leash as a puppy.  You leash train him, gently and lovingly, not by roughness. Never drag him; coax him with kind words or treats and he will respond.

If you are not more than willing to accept this puppy for his faults as well as his virtues and to keep him until death, then leave him at the kennel. Someone worthy of him will soon pass by and he will have the home he was bred and raised for.  Be certain that you will forever be worth, to be called his master.

After You're Gone

Make out a will at once! Your Samoyed is as much your responsibility as the rest of your family. Should disaster strike your home, know where he will be placed, fed and loved. Dogs have been known to starve when owners were suddenly killed, they were forgotten in the tragedy, nobody was informed to take over and see that they were fed and cared for. Make it known in writing who will receive your pet, see that a substantial sum is set aside for their care. See that this is ready cash, they will need it!!

Physical Development

Puppies are born with short, white coats. Muzzles are blunt, ears lay flat against the head, and the skin is pink. They weigh from 10 to 18 ounces. Smudges of charcoal color (pigment) appear on the noses in three or four days. Their eyes and ears open about the 14th day, weight has doubled. The charcoal is deepening to black and spreading on lips and eye rims.

The third week they are on their feet in a wobbly fashion, tails coming up over their backs for balance. Ears are folding over. Teeth appear with a vocal reaction of growling and barks. Play begins. Pigment continues to fill in on the nose, lips, and eye rims, and it is often apparent on the pads, especially the front feet. Weight is about 4 pounds.

The fifth week is their most photogenic age, they are irresistible! Play is a major part of their day divided with eating and sleeping. Pulling tails, ears, biting a paw is a specialized game. Weight is about 6 pounds.

The eighth to tenth weeks are the ideal age to enter their new homes. A great part of their lifeís mental adjustments is stabilized through association with their dam and littermates. Ears are, or soon will be, up. Pigment should be filled in at this age though pigment breaks do take up to a year to fill in for some lines. Tails should be carried well over their backs when walking. Eyes will still be slightly blue in color but those who have this color at 12 weeks will have a lighter brown eye. Early biscuit will lighten up or disappear later unless the color is definite, especially on the ears. Weight at 8 weeks is about 10 pounds. At 10 weeks is ~15 pounds.

At 4 to 6 months dogs generally go through an awkward stage. Legs and ears are out of proportion in length, the coat is suddenly too short for the overlong body. The movement can be out of whack and you may wonder if all of these extremes will ever balance together again. If he was a picture of balance and beauty at eight weeks, his sire and dam are fine specimens, well line-bred specimens, this puppy has a very good chance of being another Prince Charming. Time to maturity depends on his family line and size. This can vary widely.  Some family lines mature as early as 12 months and some as late as 4 years.

Good Breeding

A good breeding is an ethical breeding--not breeding a bitch before 2 years, and never on two consecutive heats. The studs are used only on quality bitches for the purpose of bettering the quality of the breed. The pedigrees of bitches and studs are studied carefully long before the breeding takes place. The bitch is conditioned for this mating. A reliable breeder does not just drop in with their bitch in heat to a stud owner. The stud owner would not accept such a breeding. Quality breeding is not a happening! Both should be x-rayed and proven free of hip dysplasia and have clear healthy eyes. More bitches should be refused for breeding than accepted, with many referred to another stud who will compliment her more. The reliable breeder does not feel their stud is the answer to every bitch owner's prayer.

The reliable breeder loves the Samoyed and his concern is in the breed, not in making money. His expenses usually exceed twice the income. His reward is pride in the quality he produces. Each breeding is well planned for a litter that will become a fine representation of the breed, whether sold as a pet or to show. His concern is proper placement of his puppies; prospective buyers are screened for their reason in choosing the Samoyed, if they can and will give it the proper care, attention and accept its bad habits, the shedding problems, etc. He is not a pusher of puppy sales, the buyer must want this puppy very much. He would not resort to hauling young puppies to dog shows for sale reasons. He spends much time with his puppies, building character and security in relationship to humans. He will be honest, explaining the demands, care and handling of the breed to keep it presentable as a pet or show dog---a fine example of the breed. He will furnish breed information to you or help you to get it. You will hear from this breeder periodically. His dogs receive the best of care whether sold as a pet or show dog. Dewclaws are removed at three days. Cleanliness and health go together and are this breederís concern.

Donít rush out to buy a puppy.  Visit them, talk it over with the family. A breeder will want it that way. You may have to place your name on a waiting list with a deposit if you decide to own one to assure you of a choice of sex and/or show prospect from this breeder. Be assured in your mind that he is a reliable person to deal with and that you would want a puppy from this kennel.

Reference Materials

Samoyed-Specific Books

  • The New Samoyed, by Bob and Dolly Ward, Howell Book House.

  • All About the Samoyed, by Beryl and Geoff Grounds, 1998

  • The Samoyed, by Keyte-Perry, Percy Brothers, Ltd. London.

  • The Samoyed, by The Samoyed Association of Great Britain, Battley Bros. Ltd.

  • How to Raise and Train a Samoyed, by Vera Krooman, T.F.H. Publications

  • Samoyeds, by W.L. Puxley, reprint of 1934 ed., Holflin Publishing

  • Samoyed, by Anna Katherine Nicholas, 1990, T.F.H. Publications

  • Your Samoyed, by Jan Kauzlarich, 1977, Denlingers

  • The Samoyed Book, edited by Doris and Harold McLaughlin, Holfin Publishing

  • The Best of the First Ten Years of the Samoyed Quarterly, Holflin Publishing

  • This is the Samoyed, by Joan McDonald Brearley, 1975, T.F.H. Publications

  • The Complete Pedigree Book of American Champion Samoyeds - 1907-1971 (2 Vols) - Trustees of The Goodrich Fund

General Dog Books

  • The Complete Dog Book, American Kennel Club

  • What All Good Dogs Should Know: The Sensible Way to Train - Volhard and Bartlett, 1997

  • The Mentally Sound Dog: How to Shape, Train and Change Canine Behavior, Gail Clark, 1995

  • Dog Obedience Training, by Pearsal and Leedham, Charles Scribner's Sons

  • Training You to Train Your Dog, by Saunders, Doubleday and Company

  • Communicating With Your Dog, by Ted Baer, Barrons

  • How To Raise A Puppy You Can Live With 3rd edition, Clarice Rutherford & David H. Neil

  • The Art of Raising a Puppy, by The Monks of New Skete, Little Brown & Co.

  • Visualizations of the Dog Standards, by Popular Dogs Publishing Co.

  • Animal Genetics, by Hutt, Ronald Press Co.

  • UCDavis School of Veterinary Medicine Book of Dogs: A Complete Medical Reference Guide for Dogs and Puppies, by the Faculty and Staff, School of Veterinary Medicine University of Callifornia, Davis - Edited by Mordecai Siegal.

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